Did Jesus Teach He Had To Die To Atone For The Sins Of The World?

No, as near as we can figure Jesus taught forgiveness did not come through sacrificial payment, but rather repentance that then resulted in God forgiving. Ehrman will deal with this in his upcoming book and briefly outlines the issue here (SEE TIME 23:48-27:46):

I have tried to delve into the details of this issue in two previous essays, and hopefully will do so again in future work:

(1) A Critique Of Penal Substitution

(2) Penal Substitution And Christ Mythicism