Sean Carroll’s 11 Lines of Evidence for Naturalism over Theism

This is my attempt to summarize the slides from Sean Carroll’s recent debate with WLC where he very quickly skimmed through eleven (11) lines of evidence which favor naturalism over theism. I don’t claim this is perfectly accurate; any corrections would be welcome and, in fact, appreciated!

FacetTheism (Theistic Prediction)Naturalism (Naturalistic Prediction)Lowder’s Comments
Amount of TuningJust EnoughSometimes too much (e.g., entropy). A natural mechanism could incredibly over-tune in a way that has nothing to do with the existence of life. The entropy of the early universe is much, much, much, much lower than it needs to be to allow for life.New Argument
Parameters of Particle PhysicsEnough to allow life to exist and have some structure that was designed for some reasonRandom and a messNot sure what this was about — I had a hard time transcribing this one
Role of LifeLife to play a special role in the universeLife is very insignificant in the universe. Photo from Hubble Space Telescope of hundreds of galaxies.The theistic explanation for cosmological fine-tuning asks you to look at this picture and say, “I know why it’s like that. It’s because I was going to be here. Or we were going to be here.” But there is nothing in the universe that justifies the sort of flattering story we like to tell about ourselves.Very similar to arguments from scale.
EvidenceGod should be obvious.God hides from us.Nonculpable Nonbelief (aka Divine Hiddenness)
World ReligionsReligious beliefs universalMultiple competing religionsReligious Confusion
Doctrinal stabilityEternal, unchangingAffected by social progressNew Argument (This is arguably a more specific fact about religious confusion.)
Moral teachingsTranscendent, progressiveInconsistent, tribalEthical Confusion
Sacred TextsValuable informationMishmash of really good parts, boring parts, really bad partsNew Argument (not sure I transcribed this accurately)
DesignBiological forms designedBiological forms result from twists and turns of evolutionary historyEvidential Argument from Biological Evolution
MindsMinds should be independent of bodiesPersonality should change if you’re injured, tired, or you haven’t had your cup of coffee yetEvidential Argument from Physical Minds
Problem of EvilNo random suffering; life should be essentially justThe universe is not just/perfect; it should be kind of a mess.Evidential Argument from Evil